IDS M.A Students
Year: 2002 ,2003 , 2004 , 2005 , 2006 , 2007 , 2008 , 2009 , 2010



Year
2002
Name

Muraya B. Kiigeh

Title

FREE PRIMARY EDUCA TION IN KENYA: A HOUSEHOLD ANALYSIS OF ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI PROVINCE.
Abstract

This study is about household factors that affect access to Free Primary Education (FPE) in Public Schoois in Nairobi Province, Kenya. This is in the light olthc fact that there is a high number of children who are not going to school despite the introduction of the FPE pro6’rarnme.
The Government of Kenya has since independence in 1963 invested a lot of resources, both human and capital in the expansion of the education system. These investments have borne fruit such that whereas only 891,103 pupils were enrolled in all primary schools in 1963, the current enrolment (2004) stands at over 7.6 million pupils (MOEST, 2004). One of the major causes of such dramatic increase in enrolment has been the various attempts by the government to introduce Free Primary Education (FPE) in 1973, 1978 and 2003. Enrolment on each of these occasions shot up dramatically, confirming that payment of fees and other levies tended to keep away school going age children from attending school.
Following the re-introduction of FPE in January 2003, it was estimated that the Net Enrolment Rate (NER) rose from 6,314,726 to 7,614,326 pupils by December 2003. This was an increase of 22.3%. It is however estimated that another 1.7 million children were still out of school nationally. What has prevented the 1.7 million from enrolling is an important national issue. This study explores this issue with specific reference to household factors that might have prevented the children from enrolling, in this case, in Nairobi province.
‘The study was undertaken in Nairobi Province in Kenya with the sample drawn from Bmhakasi and Makadara Divisions, which are in the generally poor Eastlands part of Nairobi. The choice of the two divisions was deemed appropriate given that FPE is meant to benefit mostly the poor. The study focused on the household thetors that might have hindered full compliance with FPF. The study used both probability and nonprobabiiity sampling methods in an attempt to gather necessaiy data.
The study found that introduction of FPE and compliance with the policy were hindered by other factors in the household, apart from payment of school fees and levies. Factors such as household income, marital status, culture, gender, and even parents’ level of education appeared to have played a key role in determining whether children are erolled or not. Along the same lines, the study also found that the policy on FPE only eddressed the issue of school fees and levies, with little or no consideration for the household factors, hence the less than 100% enrolment.
The study recommends that government policies should also address the relevant household factors if full enrolment is to be achieved. The factors should be addressed by Way of investing more resources in health and nutrition, employment creation, improving household incomes and eliminating hidden school costs under the FPE. The study finally recommends that similar research should be undertaken in other areas, apart from eastlands of Nairobi, In order to generate comprehensive data on how households are responding to the FPE policy.



Year
October 2003
Name

M. Sebastian Gatimu
Title

ARE WE MORTGAGING OUR LIVES?
The Politics of Trusteeship and Development of Mica Irrigation Scheme
.
Abstract

This study is about the politics of trusteeship in local development. As a concept, trusteeship means the intent expressed by one source ofagency to develop the capacity of another, On account of trusteeship, one agency is entrusted with acting on beha]r of another to fly to ensure development of the other. However, these interventions sometimes result into serving the economic interests of the agency itself, rather than delivering development for the benefit of the targeted community. Relatedly. beneficiaries begin to view the development initiatives by the agency as uncalled for and canying with them a hidden agenda - to exploit and oppress them. As a result, the development project by the trustee fails to be sustained because of failing to meet the loca] peoples expectations. This study looks at the legitimacy of the tnjstee and the reasons why development agencies have the intent of developing other actors. The main research question guiding this study is why do development agencies have the intent of developing other actors? Consequently, whose interests do development agencies represent and to what extent do they involve the beneficiaries in their development projects?
The study was carried out in Mwea irrigation Scheme in Kirinyaga District. The data for this study was collected during the month of June and July 2003. Data collection was canied out using stnictured and uustnjctured questionnaires. 100 respondents were interviewed by use of the structured questionnaises. The unstmctured questionnaiis, on the other hand, were administered to ten key intbrmants who included: three National Irrigation Board official in Mwea, two officials of the Mwea Rice Growers Multipurpose Co-operative, the Chairman of Mwea Rice Faxmexs SACCO Bank, Chairman of Mwea Rice Growers Multipurpose Co-operative Society, a local councilor, and two fimner members of the National Irrigation Board Advisory Committee in Mwea The data was onalyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative analysis involved calculation of frequency distributions and cross tabulations while qualitative analysis Involved content analysis of the emerging relations, themes and patterns of trusteeship aid local development in relation to the hypothesized variables.

The findings show that the tiilure of the trustee to invo’ve the beneficiaries in their development initiatives leads to the later distancing themselves am the activities of the ibrmer. The local community begin to view the trustee as the beneficiaiy outs initiatives and serving the interests of its own and that of its master. The relationship between the two then becomes increasingly troubled as the beneficiaries develop negative perception towards the trustee. As a result, the development initiatives by a trustee fail to he sustainable.
By not encouraging popular participation in local development, the beneficiaries begin to show dissatisfitetion with development initiatives by the trustee as they withdraw their popular support from it. Trustees need to legitimize their development activities at the local Level through encouxaging popular participation. This is the only way that can make their development initiatives sustainable as the beneficiaries continue to own their projects and to associate themselves with their development activities. The future of trusteeship therefore lies in a situation where the trustee and the beneliciaries sit and discuss on the way forward and the necessaly interventions to be made. The tnistee must engage itself in the pmmotion and protection of the interests of the local cornwunity, as this will ensure the beneficiaries’ support for its development initiatives



Year
2003
Name

Muhoro Njeri
Title

Centre Controlled Media as a Development Vehicle:
A Case Study of Television and Radio in Kenya.

Abstract
This is a study of the role of the media as a development vehicle, and specifically within an environment in which the centre controls key institutions. The centre here is meant the political, commercial and legal inhibitions posed by government as well as commercial interests of proprietors and the ruling elite. Kenya has gone through very significant political changes from the monolithic one party state   to a multiparty system. The role of the media under a monolithic one party system and under the multi party system has been confusing. The   growth of the sector and its diversity is seen as seriously compromised by the political controls and the state and party ownership of various critical channels of communication. These kinds of political interferences and control have tended to reduce the effective functional roles of the media as a watchdog on behalf of the majority who do not belong to the ruling elite.
 
The media, it is believed, must in this era of political changes and beyond, take its place in various development processes in Kenya. The media must be seen to be serving the ends of development. The role of the media in development is summarized by Ansah 1992 who argues that: communication is first and foremost a bridge building exercise, the foundation of which is trust in peoples’ own ability to cope. People’s participation is not something, which can be mobilized and created from the outside. It is based on people's right to decide for themselves.  The main argument of this study then, is that, there is a critical link between communication and development of the people. If we accept that the direct participation of the people is essential to their own development, then we must also recognize that such participation will not be possible if people are denied the means to express themselves, to exchange ideas and knowledge on their experiences. If they cannot openly learn what is going on in their own country, in their region or in the rest of the world, if they cannot openly and freely discuss and formulate strategies to strengthen their economies and improve their lives, then change will be slow with limited participation and with benefits for only a few. The study assesses the issue of accessibility. It argues that access should be seen in the form of a continuum that ranges from ownership of receiving sets, through to the quality of the reception and the language used, and the concentration of media facilities in the urban areas.  The problem of ownership of radio and television stations and access to channels and receiving sets has been with us for a long time. The present economic situation is such that many people can barely afford the price of some of these sets. There is no policy in place that informs the media managers, and the state, of the need to lower the prices of communication equipment. Instead, the equipments are regarded as luxury mainly because of the expenses so associated. Thus, the duty demanded for such goods make the television, radio, video camcorder and other receiving sets look like expensive trinkets, thus, negating their important role in society. The usefulness of mass media then, has been limited by the fact that few people can afford these media channels.The paper argues that the quality of reception of radio and television signals is an important factor to consider when we are talking about democratising and using the media for development. We cannot talk of free flow of information in a situation in which reception is so poor that the target audience does not see or hear clearly what is being transmitted.Respondents of this study in Coast, Rift Valley and even parts of the City of Nairobi complained of poor reception. This factor, no doubt can be considered a serious obstacle to the utilization of the radio by the masses seeking development information.
According to the findings, one cannot discuss accessibility to information without mentioning the factor of location of media facilities. In Kenya, the situation on the ground is that the majority of the available media facilities are located in Nairobi. The impression is that events occur only in Nairobi. This impression ignores that fact that there may be problems of relevance, language and viewpoints, which may have an impact on the context of messages and their reception. A related issue is that, liberalization of the media must take into account geographical spread, so that both urban and rural areas benefit from the illuminating effects of the media.  This research was undertaken before the December, 27th, 2002 General Election, that saw the KANU government lose power to the opposition. Thus when reference is made to the   government, it is the KANU government which is being referred to.


Year
April 2003
Name

Osore Zakayo
Title

INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING:
THE CASE OF BUSINESS MERGERS IN KENYA
Abstract

This study examines how socio-economic characteristics affect the performance of women owned enterprises in Mumias town.  This study builds upon the premise that differences in socio-economic characteristics affects performance of women owned enterprises.  The study utilizes social change theory.

The following were the study objectives; to determine how differences in education levels of women entrepreneurs affect the performance of their businesses; to determine the impact of dependency on the performance of women – owned enterprises; to determine how differences in age affects the performance of women owned enterprises, to determine the impact of marital status on the performance of women-owned enterprises.

Interviews were held with eighty female entrepreneurs selected on a random basis.  Five key informants provided detailed information on key areas of the study.  The study reveals that socio-economic characteristics affect the performance of women-owned enterprises in different ways.  This is manifested by differences in income, the number of workers and the initial capital available to start enterprises.  The study has established that education; marital status and age were positively related to the enterprises income.  However a large number of dependents have negatively affected enterprises income.

The study recommends the government should invest more in education of women, as it is key to better performance of women-owned enterprises.  Secondly the government and non-governmental organization should provide more capital to poor entrepreneurs.  Lastly the government (Local Authority) should provide enabling environment to entrepreneurs for the purposes of development.


Year
June 2003
Name

Kiiru Samuel Wanjohi

Title

The Myths and Realities in Development with Respect to Participation:
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE UNDP PROJECT IN KENYA.

Abstract

Development, as a concept, has its own myths and realities, due to the numerous meanings attached to it. This is also true of the many vehicles that have been used to carry development in the world, over the years. One such vehicle is Trusteeship, or the use of agencies to carry out development work on behalf of the beneficiaries.

This study, therefore, set out to investigate the myths and realities in development trusteeship, especially after the end of the Cold War. The end of the Cold War is important in that it marked the end of the East-West divide and with it the quest for spheres of influence, which had, over the years, been used by both the Eastern and Western Blocks as channels for development assistance to the Third World countries. The end of the Cold War thus marked the end of East-West competitions for spheres of ideological influence, which had earlier exploited development assistance as a tool to compromise the socio-political inclinations of many Third World countries.

It might then logically follow that, after the end of the Cold War, development assistance can best be acquired from a neutral body, whose mandate allows it to tackle thorny Third World development issues, without expecting any political, or ideological returns. Such a body is to be seen as a development trustee. The United Nations, an organisation that was formed by different member countries, and an international organisation that is assumed to be politically neutral, qualifies to be that kind of a development trustee.

The United Nations, internally, comprises various agencies, each of which is oriented towards a particular field of international concern. Consequently, it is only the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) that handles development issues in, virtually, all sectors. That makes the UNDP a very important agency in the evaluation of the UN. The evaluation of the UN is also handled within the Participation within Development Trusteeship Framework, which advocates for local level, or peoples’ participation in trustee-funded development projects.

In this regard, the study has taken the issue of investigating local community participation in UNDP projects in Kenya, a Third World country. The study, therefore, has sought to explore for the presence or absence of local community participation, if present, describe and explain its manifestations, with the aim of relating it to the sustainability aspect of particular projects. It is particularly important, in this study, to establish whether local community participation in trustee-funded projects is the key to development sustainability in the Third World. This arises out of the question: “how intentional can development by agency be?”

In this study, and according to the doctrine of development trusteeship, it is argued that intentional development requires the input, or participation, of those people whose lives stand to be improved by the development activity/(ies) or project(s) being implemented by a given development trustee. That is, if development has to be meaningful and sustainable at the local level, it has to be informed by the desires and/or aspirations of the local communities. A development trustees, in this case the UNDP, is supposed to only act as an agency whose activities are based on, and in direct conformity to what the members of the local community deems necessary efforts for improving the quality of their own lives.

Consequently, this study has established that the UNDP relates with the local community members as a partner, and not as an all-knowing development expert. This unique trustee-beneficiary relationship mainly allocates the role of a development projects’ financier to the UNDP, while the members of the local community are left to identify, design, plan, and implement their development projects. However, this does not totally imply that the members of the local communities do not provide some of the financial requirements for the projects during, and even after, implementation. This issue of local community financial contributions is even more strongly evidenced when one looks at the various modes of local community participation in the development projects investigated in the study.

The UNDP also takes the role of a constant/regular development advisor. In this vein, the local community members become the owners of the various development projects implemented through the UNDP funding. In order to avoid the risk of losing development funds to unscrupulous individuals, the UNDP offers development project funds to already existing development projects under properly instituted community development organisations (CBDOs) or community based non-governmental development organisations. This is particularly exemplified through the activities of the UNDP’s Global Environment Facility, Small Grants Project (GEF/SGP) and Africa 2000 Network (A2N) programmes.

As established through this study, such an orientation in local community development projects’ funding promotes development ownership and sustainability. However, the study has also established that meaningful local participation in development is impossible in the absence of an educated and enlightened population. This is due to the fact that, before acquiring funds a community needs to, not only have identified the problem, but also to have established the community’s own ways of tackling that problem. This then implies that the UNDP’s assistance is more strongly felt and experienced in those communities whose members are literate and exposed enough to take charge of their own development.



Year
July 2003
Name

Michuki George

Title

Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Kenya:
A Case of Meru North District

Abstract

Development as a concept has its own myths and realities due to the numerous meanings attached to it.. This is also true in the many vehicles that have been used to carry development in the world, over the years.One such vehicle is Trusteeship or the use the agencies to carry out development work on behalf of the beneficiaries
This study,therefore, set out to investigate the myths and realities in development trusteeship. especially after the end of the cold war. The end of the cold war is important in that it marked the end of the East - West divide, arid with it the quest for spheres of influence which had. over the years been used by both the Eastern and Western Blocks as channels for development assistance to the third World countries. The end of the Cold War thus marked the end of East-West competition for spheres of ideological influence, which had earlier exploited development assistance as a tool to compromise the socio-political inclinations of many Thirld World countries countries.
It mighl then logically follow that, after the end of the Cold War, development assistance can best be acquired from a neutral body, whose mandate allows it to tackle thorny Third World development issues, without expecting any political, or ideological returns. Such a body is to be seen as a development trustee, The United Nations, an organisation that was formed by different member countries, and an international organisation that is assumed to be politically neutral. qualifies to be that kind of a development trustee.
The United Nations, internally. comprises various agencies. each of which is oriented inwards a particular held ol international concern. consequently. it is only the United Nations Development Programme(UNDP) that handles development issues in, virtually all sectors. That makes the UNDP a very iimportant agency in the evaluation of the UN.The evaluation of the UN is also handled within the Participation within Development Trusteeship Framework, which advocates for local level, or peoples’ participation in trustee- funded development projects.



Year
October 2003
Name

M. Sebastian Gatimu
Title

ARE WE MORTGAGING OUR LIVES?
The Politics of Trusteeship and Development of Mica Irrigation Scheme
.
Abstract

This study is about the politics of trusteeship in local development. As a concept, trusteeship means the intent expressed by one source ofagency to develop the capacity of another, On account of trusteeship, one agency is entrusted with acting on beha]r of another to fly to ensure development of the other. However, these interventions sometimes result into serving the economic interests of the agency itself, rather than delivering development for the benefit of the targeted community. Relatedly. beneficiaries begin to view the development initiatives by the agency as uncalled for and canying with them a hidden agenda - to exploit and oppress them. As a result, the development project by the trustee fails to be sustained because of failing to meet the loca] peoples expectations. This study looks at the legitimacy of the tnjstee and the reasons why development agencies have the intent of developing other actors. The main research question guiding this study is why do development agencies have the intent of developing other actors? Consequently, whose interests do development agencies represent and to what extent do they involve the beneficiaries in their development projects?
The study was carried out in Mwea irrigation Scheme in Kirinyaga District. The data for this study was collected during the month of June and July 2003. Data collection was canied out using stnictured and uustnjctured questionnaires. 100 respondents were interviewed by use of the structured questionnaises. The unstmctured questionnaiis, on the other hand, were administered to ten key intbrmants who included: three National Irrigation Board official in Mwea, two officials of the Mwea Rice Growers Multipurpose Co-operative, the Chairman of Mwea Rice Faxmexs SACCO Bank, Chairman of Mwea Rice Growers Multipurpose Co-operative Society, a local councilor, and two fimner members of the National Irrigation Board Advisory Committee in Mwea The data was onalyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative analysis involved calculation of frequency distributions and cross tabulations while qualitative analysis Involved content analysis of the emerging relations, themes and patterns of trusteeship aid local development in relation to the hypothesized variables.

The findings show that the tiilure of the trustee to invo’ve the beneficiaries in their development initiatives leads to the later distancing themselves am the activities of the ibrmer. The local community begin to view the trustee as the beneficiaiy outs initiatives and serving the interests of its own and that of its master. The relationship between the two then becomes increasingly troubled as the beneficiaries develop negative perception towards the trustee. As a result, the development initiatives by a trustee fail to he sustainable.
By not encouraging popular participation in local development, the beneficiaries begin to show dissatisfitetion with development initiatives by the trustee as they withdraw their popular support from it. Trustees need to legitimize their development activities at the local Level through encouxaging popular participation. This is the only way that can make their development initiatives sustainable as the beneficiaries continue to own their projects and to associate themselves with their development activities. The future of trusteeship therefore lies in a situation where the trustee and the beneliciaries sit and discuss on the way forward and the necessaly interventions to be made. The tnistee must engage itself in the pmmotion and protection of the interests of the local cornwunity, as this will ensure the beneficiaries’ support for its development initiatives



Year
2003
Name

Muhoro Njeri
Title

Centre Controlled Media as a Development Vehicle:
A Case Study of Television and Radio in Kenya.

Abstract
This is a study of the role of the media as a development vehicle, and specifically within an environment in which the centre controls key institutions. The centre here is meant the political, commercial and legal inhibitions posed by government as well as commercial interests of proprietors and the ruling elite. Kenya has gone through very significant political changes from the monolithic one party state   to a multiparty system. The role of the media under a monolithic one party system and under the multi party system has been confusing. The   growth of the sector and its diversity is seen as seriously compromised by the political controls and the state and party ownership of various critical channels of communication. These kinds of political interferences and control have tended to reduce the effective functional roles of the media as a watchdog on behalf of the majority who do not belong to the ruling elite.
 
The media, it is believed, must in this era of political changes and beyond, take its place in various development processes in Kenya. The media must be seen to be serving the ends of development. The role of the media in development is summarized by Ansah 1992 who argues that: communication is first and foremost a bridge building exercise, the foundation of which is trust in peoples’ own ability to cope. People’s participation is not something, which can be mobilized and created from the outside. It is based on people's right to decide for themselves.  The main argument of this study then, is that, there is a critical link between communication and development of the people. If we accept that the direct participation of the people is essential to their own development, then we must also recognize that such participation will not be possible if people are denied the means to express themselves, to exchange ideas and knowledge on their experiences. If they cannot openly learn what is going on in their own country, in their region or in the rest of the world, if they cannot openly and freely discuss and formulate strategies to strengthen their economies and improve their lives, then change will be slow with limited participation and with benefits for only a few. The study assesses the issue of accessibility. It argues that access should be seen in the form of a continuum that ranges from ownership of receiving sets, through to the quality of the reception and the language used, and the concentration of media facilities in the urban areas.  The problem of ownership of radio and television stations and access to channels and receiving sets has been with us for a long time. The present economic situation is such that many people can barely afford the price of some of these sets. There is no policy in place that informs the media managers, and the state, of the need to lower the prices of communication equipment. Instead, the equipments are regarded as luxury mainly because of the expenses so associated. Thus, the duty demanded for such goods make the television, radio, video camcorder and other receiving sets look like expensive trinkets, thus, negating their important role in society. The usefulness of mass media then, has been limited by the fact that few people can afford these media channels.The paper argues that the quality of reception of radio and television signals is an important factor to consider when we are talking about democratising and using the media for development. We cannot talk of free flow of information in a situation in which reception is so poor that the target audience does not see or hear clearly what is being transmitted.Respondents of this study in Coast, Rift Valley and even parts of the City of Nairobi complained of poor reception. This factor, no doubt can be considered a serious obstacle to the utilization of the radio by the masses seeking development information.
According to the findings, one cannot discuss accessibility to information without mentioning the factor of location of media facilities. In Kenya, the situation on the ground is that the majority of the available media facilities are located in Nairobi. The impression is that events occur only in Nairobi. This impression ignores that fact that there may be problems of relevance, language and viewpoints, which may have an impact on the context of messages and their reception. A related issue is that, liberalization of the media must take into account geographical spread, so that both urban and rural areas benefit from the illuminating effects of the media.  This research was undertaken before the December, 27th, 2002 General Election, that saw the KANU government lose power to the opposition. Thus when reference is made to the   government, it is the KANU government which is being referred to.


Year
October 2003
Name

Okoth Stephen Otieno
Title

FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS:
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI, KENYA.
Abstract

This paper presents findings of a study on the effects of free primary education programme on private primary education in Nairobi and the measures put in place by private primary schools to address these effects.  The free primary education programme was implemented by the Kenya government in January 2003.

The study tests for statistical significance of the differences between the means of various indicators in 2002 and 2003.  The study shows that the total number of pupils enrolments, the number of new pupils enrolled in school and the number of pupil transfers to public primary schools are statistically significant.  This shows a negative effect on private primary education.  However, the annual school fee per child, total revenue of school, total cost of school equipment and materials, total number of teachers, number of teachers recruited, number of teachers sacked and teachers’ average salaries are not statistically significant.  This shows that the indicators have not been significantly affected by the free primary education programme.

This study notes that its too early to make conclusive remarks on the implications of FPE programme for private primary education because of the short time span the programme has been in existence.  Nonetheless, the study concludes that pupil enrolments in private primary schools have been negatively affected and private primary have put in place various measures such as increased teacher inputs, provision of free tuition and reduction of school expenditures in order to address these effects.



Year
October 2003
Name

John Leyian Letolua
Title

THE INFLUENCE OF FARMLAND LEASING ON HOUSEHOLD LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES:
A STUDY OF THE WHEATBELT REGION OF NAROK DISTRICT.

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of farmland leasing on the livelihood strategies of pastoral households.

The study was conducted in two wheat-growing locations of Narok district. The main survey involved eighty respondents randomly selected from both administrative locations. A total of ten key informants were also interviewed.

The study found that pastoral households mainly leased out their land in order to earn some income. Secondly, many leased out their land due to inability to effectively utilize their land.

The households were found to have invested their lease income differently. However, the majority invested most of it in the education of their children. Many had also invested heavily in livestock.

Farmland leasing was also found to have several effects on pastoralism. One major effect was the reduction in the size of land available for grazing, which has forced pastoralists to make significant adjustments. It has also encouraged a seasonal migration of livestock that is not based on scarcity of pasture due to drought but rather from the alienation of land by farming.

Most households had also seen a significant increase in the number of their animals since they started leasing out their land. Whole process of farmland leasing was found to have especially favored sheep farming.

It was also established that farmland leasing is likely to continue into the new future as social and economic changes take place among the pastoralists.



Year
October 2003
Name

Omondi Onyango Tom
Title

INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING:
The Casa Of Business Mergers In Kenya
Abstract

Merges and takeovers have continued to take place among many firms in various sectors of the Kenyan economy. The manufacturing sector is no exception to these business strategies. The main goal of this study was to understand the reasons for and the effects of industrial restructuring in Kenya specifically the study sought to identify the determinants of business mergers and takeovers in Kenya document the existing institutional arrangements of business mergers and takeovers in Kenya: and document the effects of business mergers on firm performance in Kenya.

The study found out that merges in the Kenyan manufacturing sector were propelled to occur by various factors. These reasons include desire to enhance the firm's market position in a competitive environment to acquire and improve technology for product development to reap the benefits of economies of scale in production and distribution to increase firms rate of profitability to acquire more operating space; to increase production capabilities and widen range of products; to benefit from sharing their synergistic strengths; and to counter the effects of cheap imports in the economy.

Firm mergers have diverse effects on the performance of the new merged entity. The study findings indicate that mergers result in higher rate of profitability, average annual output levels and capacity utilization for the new merged firm. Additionally, the study reveals that mergers optimise managerial efficiency of the new merged entity.

The existing institutional arrangements for mergers gravitate around the operations of the Monopolies and Price Commission (MPC) and its enforcement of the Competitive Law. The study found out that the commission is not effectively carrying out this mandate for the smooth merger process in the manufacturing sector and the country in general . The lack of a specified time period within which a merger has to be approved or rejected provides the loopholes that perpetuate the undercutting of the law by the politically correct firms or individuals.

The study recommends that there is need for the monopolies and Price Commission (MPC) to sensitise the firms over provisions of the competition law and the mandate of the commission; the commission to be given some powers to prosecute firms that engage in restrictive trade practices that compromise competiton ethics; for all stakeholders' to actively be involved in the merger process; to amend the Competition law in order to institutionalise clear clauses and provisions with regard to international mergers; and for adoption of 'sun set clause' setting a period beyond which if no response is received a merger will be considered consummated even without the MPC officially approving it.



Year
November: 2003
Name

Jane Khasoa Lusenaka

Title

THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE UNITED NATIONS
SYSTEM IN KENYA
Abstract

This project examines the social and economic contributions of the UN system in Kenya since independence. The focus of the study is on the agency specific contributions owards social and economic development. These contributions have been handled under three broad categories of the UN system in Kenya. that is. the UN Development Group. Ther UN Funds and Programmes, and the UN Specialised agencies in Kenya.
The UNDP, which is the operational arm of the UN to serve the interests of the entire system, is examined in detail in an attempt to determine the link between development policy and experience to its practice in Kenya. This study builds on the premise that there should exist a systematic and comprehensive documentation oithe UN practice in Kenya.
The following were the study objectives: (I) to identify’ the UN system in Kenyas contribution to social and economic development since independence, (2) to investigate the extent to which development theory informs the practice of the UNDP in Kenya and. to assess the extent to which experience has informed the practice of the UNDP in Kenya towards social and economic development since independence.
The UN agencies in Kenya play an important role in promoting social and economic development of the country with the UN Development Group being the lead category in law fulfilment of the UN mission in Kenya. This mission is to improve the quality of life and well being of the population by reducing poverty, with particular focus on the most dullierable groups and regions, and the progressive fulfilment of rights for women and children.
The analysis of the UNDP projects and programmes reveals the fact that its practice has iunr4 a times been informed by the existing development theories in a particular era. On the other hand, the UNDP practice is influenced by experiences. Experiences refers to the kntiwIede/skills held by its staff from previous employment/exposures, occurrences in Iw eounEry s implied by the existing goverrment policy documents, and top issues on Ihe international agendas. The government policy documents are as a result of the occurrences both in the country and in the international development trends. This shows thc usefulness of the UN system to the Kenyan economy in development issues and the IhcI that it does not just act on its own but that its decisions are informed by development domas, experiences of the people it works with and the country it operates within.
However the UN system in Kenya has failed to systematically document its social and economic contributions in Kenya. It is vital to consider keeping written comprehensive iories of each agency’s contribution to development in the country. These will assist csearchers, new UN staff, the government, and other stakeholders to appreciate the contributions of the organisation in the country and access relevant information easily iit the IN system in Kenya.
Inforrnation on the influence of development theory and experience is relevant in an attempt to assess issues that influence the UN system in Kenya in its decision making
in this study recommends all the stakeholders to participate in the development efforts of he country and not just to leave everything to the government, this includes individuals
Other organisations in Kenya. These efforts should be directed to addressing thesituation in Kenya and be a function of the relevant experiences of the agents of
the deloprnent and the host country.




Year
November 2003
Name

Milton Utwolo Alwanga
Title

INSTITUTIONS AND ENTERPRISE GROWTH IN KENYA:
THE CASE OF FIRM LEVELS INSTITUTIONS AMONG WOOD FURNITURE PRODUCERS IN KAKAMEGA TOWN.
Abstract

Since 1986, the Kenyan government has put special emphasis on the promotion of Micro and Small Enterprise, (MSEs), particularly in the medium sized urban centres or towns.  These are incidentally the areas that are suffering some of the highest rates of unemployment and human poverty.  MSEs play an important role in poverty alleviation through development of employment and income generation in the non-farm sector.

This paper examines the role played by firm level institutions in the growth and development of MSEs in Kakamega, Kenya.  Areas of focus include distinguishing of firm level institutions as well as the constraints to establishing firm level institutions.  Establishing and strengthening firm level institutional dynamics such as management styles, strategic focus and legal framework is one way to promote the growth of MSEs.

The significance of education, gender and age in determination of firm level institutions were tested using the X2 Test at 0.05 level of significance.  The insight into the determining factors of firm level institutions and the factors limiting the growth of and establishment of firm level business systems were analyzed.  The research found that wood furniture SMMEs in Kakamega exist with inadequately developed firm level institutions. Interviews revealed that businesses with fairly developed firm level business systems tend to do better than those with inadequate or no business systems.  Constraints to firm level institutions included poor educational backgrounds of entrepreneurs, lack of inter-firm linkages including low-level participation in business and welfare associations. There is limited application of new product design and development technologies.  There is also lack of incentives to promote business linkages from the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

This paper makes several recommendations to address these constraints including focusing on increasing the amount of support services by the Government, NGOs, CBOs, K.I.E. as well as providing continuing training, skills development and access to new technologies to micro and small, medium scale wood furniture producers.



Year
2003
Name

Onyango E. Aggrey
Title

POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES UTILIZED BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs):
The case of Kisumu District,Kenya.
Abstract

This study is about strategies employed by NGOs in poverty reduction. The main objective of this study is to examine the suitability of these strategies in tackling poverty. The study discusses how these strategies are formulated and the effectiveness of these strategies in reducing poverty. The study answers the following principal question: What strategies do NGOs utilize for the purpose of poverty reduction and what constraints do they face in this regard. The study also seeks to know the nature of the relationship between NGOs and other stakeholders and its implication for poverty reduction strategies. The study tests three main hypothesis among others. The first hypothesis states that NGOs poverty reduction strategies are derivedfrom their goals, mission and vision. The second hypothesis states that the strategies utilized by the NGOs are dependent on the local conditions and the third hypothesis states that the suitability of strategies employed by NGOs depend on their linkages with other partners.

The data for this study was collected using both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources comprised field interviews with officials of NGOs operating in Kisumu District. The secondary sources comprised relevant NGOs, government and WOrld Bank documents and reports on poverty.

Study findings show that poverty reduction strategies are crucial in reducing poverty levels and that partnership between NGOs and other development partners is important in ensuring the effectiveness of NGOs strategy. the findings show that the majority of NGOs derive their poverty reduction strategies from their vision and mission statements among other factors. The study findings further points out that NGOs face a number of constraints that determine the choice of their poverty reduction strategies. The study concludes that NGOs utilize a variety of strategies and all development partners need to work together to effectively address poverty. Third, the linkage between the organisations poverty reduction strategies to their mission, vision and goals is vital in order to adequetly address poverty. Fourth, a number of factors such as financial constraints, institutional capacity, government policies among others affect the choice of poverty reduction strategies thereby hinder the achievement of expected outcomes of poverty reduction strategies employed by NGOs.

The study recommends that the partnership between NGOs and other development partners needs to be strengthened if poverty is to be addressed effectively. A cordial relationship will ensure formulation and adoption of sustainable strategies to tackle poverty. The NGOs should have clear strategies and realistic vision, mission and goal linked to their poverty reduction strategies by other development actors such as the private sector.



Year
2004
Name

Ebel Oyuke Omollo
Title

HIV/AIDS AND HOUSEHOLD COPING STRATEGIES IN RESOURCE POOR SETTINGS:
A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITY BASED HOME CARE IN THE EASTLANDS OF NAIROBI.

Abstract

Institutions and policy makers are rapidly coming to terms with the devastating impacts or HIV and AIDS. Mathematical models have indicated that the impact of Aids cuts across every aspect of the pocietal fabric with massive socio-economic implications. In Kenya, HIV/AIDS is a declared national disaster, yet many policy makers in the country are just waking up to the reality of what this naturally means in terms of national development and human welfare in particular.
This study has explored the various coping strategies adopted by cash strapped households in Nairobi. The study was based on a primary survey of urban poor households in Kayole estate, which has one of the highest reported AIDS cases in Nairobi. in light of additional strains exerted by [liv and AIDS on hospital care, the study also looked into the possibilities of enhancing community based care within the home setting there referred to as Home Based Care, HBC) as a strategy to reducing the severity of such coping alternatives. This investigation involved the use of both primary and secondary materials on IIIV and AIDS particularly those related to the management of the impacts of the epidemic on households. A primary survey was carried out among households that either had experienced or continued to experience the impact of HI V/AIDS during the period of the survey. Data collection for the survey involved the use of structured survey questionnaires. Discussions with key informants formed an integral part of gathering qualitative data for the study. The methods for collecting qualitative data comprised complete observations, open ended in depth interviews, unscheduled open interviews and case studies.
The study found that there were a myriad of strategies adopted by households in the face of WV and AIDS. The severity of these strategies depended greatly on the amount and nature of resources that were at the disposal of these households. The study found that many households that had assets and savings, resorted to the sale of such assets and dc-saving to provide for themselves. However, others simply resorted to borrowing, re-adjustments of household consumption and changes in the behaviour pattern of household members. The study also found that comprehensive care across continuum for People Living with HI V/AIDS (PLWHAs) within the home setting provided the best alternative to hospital care that is already characterized with severe crisis owing to large patient admissions, dilapidated health infrastructure and the general scarcity of resources.
.



Year
2004
Name

Muchene Maryanne Wakanyi
Title

HIV/AIDS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISE SECTOR IN NAIROBI.
Abstract

Over 25 million workers worldwide are infected with HIV, and millions more are affected by the epidemic. The epidemic cuts the supply of labour, with a resulting loss of skills, training and experience. At the same time, labour costs are rising due to sickness and absenteeism. As a result, enterprises are losing productivity, public and private investment is being cut, and employment opportunities are contracting, with an increase in precarious/informal activities and growing poverty.
This project paper examined the effects of HEy/AIDS on the development of the Micro and Small Enterprise sector. The paper looks at the effects of HI V/AIDS on output and inputs of a business as well as the effects on management practices. The objectives of the study were to examine the effects of HIV/AIDS, to determine how the pandemic influences the inputs, outputs and finn production, and to outline interventions necessary. The hypotheses for the study stated that HIV/AIDS affects negatively all the above, ie inputs, outputs and firm production.
The analysis indicates that the HIV/AIDS scourge has seriously affected the outputs and inputs of firms. Markets are also affected because the purchasing power of the population has declined, as the epidemic ravages on. In declining health, the entrepreneurs may also not be in a position to carry out extensive marketing of their products. HIV/AIDS affects firms’ production practices. HIV/AIDS affects management issues. This is especially seen when time is diverted to care for sick family members. It has emerged that absenteeism costs businesses a lot. Time management is non - existent and many manhours are diverted because of HIV/AIDS.
The paper has made various recommendations to deal with the aggravating effects of HIV/AIDS. Among them include educating these entrepreneurs on safe sex issues, and providing an appropriate health care and social support system. The government should also make provisions for the care and for the future survival of thmilies that have been affected by the pandemic. Lastly, those entrepreneurs that are taking care of orphans and other dependants made so by AIDS should be given all the necessary help so that they do not unnecessarily eat into their enterprises, running them down.

.



Year
July 2004
Name

Sabina Nelly Aburi

Title

Academic Staff Perceptions of and the Actual Working Conditions in the University of Nairobi and thcir likely influence on Brain Drain .
Abstract

The objective of this study was to look at the extent to which the academic staff perceptions of and the actual working conditions in the University of Nairobi are likely to influence brain drain from the university The study explored the conditions in which the academic staff work in the University of Nairobi and their possible cause of brain drain. Ihe study further reviewed the state of the other public Universities in Kenyan as well as in Africa.
The population of this study comprised of all academic staff in the University of Nairobi. All the six colleges in the university were covered. The faculties under each of the colleges were sampled through proportionate random sampling leading to the selection of 7 faculties and institute. Using the same sampling technique departments were sanplcd from each of the faculties. The sample comprised 12 departments and one institute. Proportionate random sampling was again used to determine the number of staff to be sampled from each department as well as the institute. This process yielded a sample of 109 academic staff members. The study used purposive sampling to identify heads of department to bc interviewed as key informants of the study. 100 academic staff members were finally interviewed representing a response rate of 92%.
The study found out that the University of Nairobi academic staff are generally dissatisfied with all aspects of their working conditions. The majority generally perceived the working conditions to be very poor.
Almost all the respondents (99%) are dissatisfied with the salaries and benefits offered by the UON. The majority also indicated that salary and benefits are a significant factor that can influence them to seek better opportunities elsewhere. The analysis equally showed that of all the aspects of compensation, salary is the most significant.
The study found out that research opportunities are generally limited. The number of research projects undertaken reflects some of the difticulties facing research in public universities in Kenya and in Africa. This can be deduced from the fact that only 3 respondents have carried Out more than 6 research projects in 5 years, translating to I research project per a year. The key constraints to research identified include lack of funding for research, heavy workload and lack of access to information available on research. Research was identified as the second aspect after salaries and benefits that greatly influence the decision of university academic staff members to move and work mtside the country.
The majority of the University of Nairobi academic staff members have been able to publish in the last five years. However, constraints such as heavy workload (43%) and nubility to carry out research (57%) are the major factors hindering some of the academic staff from publishing.
Staff development opportunities were also found to be limited. The academic staff members are hardly sponsored for further training by the university. Most of theacademic staff, however, would wish to undertake further training. The preffered institutions for further training for most staff are those in the developed world. The limited opportunity for sponsorship for further training was found to be a major factor pushing the academic staff out of the university.
The teaching facilities and support services within the UoN were found to be inadequateand insufficient. The library does not stock books and journals within six months of their publication. Workshops and laboratories do not have enough equipment and the existing eves are not upto-date. There is a significant deficit of secretarial support in the university of Nairobi. Academic staff either does secretarial work on their own, hire someone to do it for them or engage the services of their departmental secretary.
However, most academic staff rated the likelihood of the teaching facilities pushing them of the university employment as average.
The majority of the academic staff members do not reside in university houses. Several reasons were advanced for this situation: some of the academic staff have their own houses, some do not prefer staying in university houses because they are poorly maintained and others said that the houses are fully occupied and therefore not available to them. However, housing is of less significance as a push factor but assumes greater significance as motivating factor.
The promotion of academic staff is not always done on the basis of established criteria.There are some instances of favouritism in effecting promotion of academic staff. The majority of staff interviewed said that in most cases some academic staff members who they perceive not to have met the promotion criteria are promoted. The likelihood of being promoted is an important factor pushing University of Nairobi academic staff to look for employment elsewhere.
The majority of the academic staff members perceive their workload to be just about right. This is reflected by the fact that majority view their class sizes as average arid teach for between 3 and 10 hours per week. Overall, the study established that workload is not a significant push factor and not a major problem to the majority of the academic staff. This was a surprise finding given the overall perception that the academic staff members are overworked.
The study found out that the majority of the respondents perceived that the overall administration of the UoN is inefficient and rigid. However, the majority of the academic staff indicated that the type of management style is an insignificant push factor in influencing their decision to move out of the university.
In conclusion, most academic staff members perceive the working conditions in the University of Nairobi as poor This perception greatly influences the decision of the staff members to move to and to work outside the country. There is therefore need for the condtions of work for academic staff to be improved if this perception is to be changed to the positive.



Year
November: 2005
Name

Bong'o Omollo David

Title

THE EFFECT OF CHILD LABOUR ON PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT AND ATTENDANCE:
The Case of Mfang’ano Division, Suba District.
.
Abstract

The study examines the effect of child labour on primary school enrolment and attendance in Mfanga'no Division, Suba District after the introduction of the free primary education in 2003. It was based on one general objective and three specific objectives with corresponding research questions. The general objective was to investigate the effects of child labour on enrolment and attendance in primary school with regard to free primary education. The specific objectives were; to establish the forms and nature of child labour in Mfanga'no Division, Suba District; to ascertain the factors that promote child labour in a fishing community; and finally to investigate the effect of child labour on primary school enrolment and attendance.

The study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data. It was conducted in Mfanga'no Division, Suba District. The study adopted a multi stage sampling technique and appropriately combined both the probability and non-probability sampling procedures. Apart from the structured questionnaires, key informants, focus group discussions and case study methodology, participant observation was also used to collect data. The data collected was analysed and presented using both the qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The study used cross tabulation and Chi Square tests to establish relationship between variables. The relationship was tested at 0.05 level of significance.

The study established that in Mfang'ano Island, child labour largely manifests itself in the form of fishing. However, there are some children who engage in trade along the beach, sand harvesting, herding cattle and domestic work. It further established that there is a positive relationship between child labour and parents socio-economic background. Poverty is a significant determinant of child labour. The study also found out that cultural perception and orientation about the formal schooling, for example that instead of going to school. This is coupled by the fact that the formal education system prepares children for the industrial and formal employment. It further established that child labour has a negative effect on primary school education, associated with low enrolment rates in primary schools, absenteeism and poor performance.

Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations have been made, solutions to child labour must encompass partners in all the sectors and all the levels of society. The spirit of law must be complemented by changes in the wider socio-economic settings in the society because the education sector operates within a larger framework. Free primary education as it is may not eliminate child labour. The education sector should be reformed to be more responsive to the societal needs. This has to do mostly with the quality and relevance of the curriculum and the diversity in educational approaches both formal and informal. The study further recommends the need for livelihood diversification strategies to reduce over dependence on the lake and to enhance poverty reduction measures. Such a move would ensure improvement in the primary enrolment and school attendance.



Year
January 2005
Name

Kiura Charles Munene.
Title

INTEGRATING STREET VENDORS IN URBAN
DEVELOPMENT. A CASE STUDY OF ‘HAWKERS’
IN NAIROBI, KENYA
Abstract

This study is about the new policy on relocation of hawkers from the main streets to the back lanes of Nairobi city council. The study examines street vendors’ involvement in the process of relocation, the appropriateness of the back lanes as vending sites, the procedures followed in site allocation, rules and regulations applicable to street vending, site management issues and the ideal situation of street vending in Nairobi. The assumption guiding this study is that hawkers have continued to be major players in the urban economy, amidst retrogressive regulations, harassment and non- recognition by authorities.
The study found out that street vendor representatives invoLved in negotiations leading to the relocation were hand picked and did not effectively represent the interests of many hawkers. Moreover, site allocation in the back lanes was marred by fivouritism and corruption. Majority of the sites lacked the infrastructure necessary for vending activities. Although majority of the hawkers were operating from these sites, some went to the main streets especially in the evenings. Many of the rules and regulations set by the authorities are not practical given the working conditions. Hawkers have consequently ignored them.
Although the relocation was intended to decongest the main streets of the city, it also signalled a change of attitude by the authorities towards the hawkers. By giving hawkers vending space within the Central Business District, the Nairobi city council partly integrated street vendors into urban development. This study therefore recommends that, as a first step towards finding a lasting solution to street vendors’ problem of site of operation, city’s hawkers’ by-laws should be repealed, to those that
recognise hawkers’ contribution to the urban economy. Nairobi city council should support street vendors by providing the back lanes and other identified vending sites
with the necessary infrastructure to make them appropriate for trade and safe for all the
users.

In the short-term, periodical markets such as the Maasai market’ must be encouraged. As land becomes scarce, city planners must be challenged to pay more attention to vertical expansion of land, as a long-term measure. Ultimately, hawkers need to be settled in markets located on areas acceptable to them, while safeguarding the interests of other stakeholders’. The relocation of hawkers should be viewed as a transitory stage, towards more lasting solutions.



Year
February 2005
Name

Linet Bonareri Misati
Title

SOCIO-CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS INFLUENCING PARTICIPATION IN USER-OWNED MICRO FINANCE ORGANISATIONS:
THE CASE OF BONDO DISTRICT

Abstract

This study investigates socio—cullural institutions influencing participation in user-owned microfinance organisations specifically, RoSCAs and ASCAs. among the luo of Bondo District.the study has made use of social capital theory is its theoretical framework. This theory posits that voluntary co—operation such as RoSCAs and ASCAs is easier in a community that has inherited a substantial stock of social capital. Social capital is the shared knowledge. understanding, institutions, and patterns that of a group of individuals bring to any activity (Coleman 988; Ostrom 991); Putnam 19’)]). A structured questionnaire, in—depth key informant interviews, locus group discussions and observation were employed in data collection. Statistical Programme in Social Scienists (SPSS ) and Excel computer programme were made use of in analysing quantitative data while content analysis was used in analysing qualitative data.
The findings of the study show that socio-cultural institutions influence participation in these organisations. RoSCAs and ASCAs in the study area all organised on one or more of the following criteria: kinship ties, family and marital status and gender. In addition values such as trust and reciprocity, mutual aid, and collective work in the community spirit continue to he maintained in these organisations. Leadership in the organisations is dependent on age, nnrital status, gender, education, leadership ability and length of membership. The norm of reciprocity and the desire by members to keep theirr reputation helps in repayment of money owed to the groups by members. RoSCAs and ASCAs strengthen Social ties of their members by providing support in deserving cases of repayment defaults/problems The study concludes that cultural values continue to be maintained in RoSCA and ASCA organisations.
In line with the findings, the study makes recommendations for micro finance organisations, which work with existing RoSCAs and ASCAs, those intending to start programmes based on RoSCA or ASCA group mechanism in Bondo District and for banks. In addition recommendations are made for the existing independent RoSCAs and ask a. Futhermore the study also makes recommendations for further study and for the government.



Year
November: 2005
Name

Bong'o Omollo David

Title

THE EFFECT OF CHILD LABOUR ON PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT AND ATTENDANCE:
The Case of Mfang’ano Division, Suba District.
.
Abstract

The study examines the effect of child labour on primary school enrolment and attendance in Mfanga'no Division, Suba District after the introduction of the free primary education in 2003. It was based on one general objective and three specific objectives with corresponding research questions. The general objective was to investigate the effects of child labour on enrolment and attendance in primary school with regard to free primary education. The specific objectives were; to establish the forms and nature of child labour in Mfanga'no Division, Suba District; to ascertain the factors that promote child labour in a fishing community; and finally to investigate the effect of child labour on primary school enrolment and attendance.

The study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data. It was conducted in Mfanga'no Division, Suba District. The study adopted a multi stage sampling technique and appropriately combined both the probability and non-probability sampling procedures. Apart from the structured questionnaires, key informants, focus group discussions and case study methodology, participant observation was also used to collect data. The data collected was analysed and presented using both the qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The study used cross tabulation and Chi Square tests to establish relationship between variables. The relationship was tested at 0.05 level of significance.

The study established that in Mfang'ano Island, child labour largely manifests itself in the form of fishing. However, there are some children who engage in trade along the beach, sand harvesting, herding cattle and domestic work. It further established that there is a positive relationship between child labour and parents socio-economic background. Poverty is a significant determinant of child labour. The study also found out that cultural perception and orientation about the formal schooling, for example that instead of going to school. This is coupled by the fact that the formal education system prepares children for the industrial and formal employment. It further established that child labour has a negative effect on primary school education, associated with low enrolment rates in primary schools, absenteeism and poor performance.

Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations have been made, solutions to child labour must encompass partners in all the sectors and all the levels of society. The spirit of law must be complemented by changes in the wider socio-economic settings in the society because the education sector operates within a larger framework. Free primary education as it is may not eliminate child labour. The education sector should be reformed to be more responsive to the societal needs. This has to do mostly with the quality and relevance of the curriculum and the diversity in educational approaches both formal and informal. The study further recommends the need for livelihood diversification strategies to reduce over dependence on the lake and to enhance poverty reduction measures. Such a move would ensure improvement in the primary enrolment and school attendance.


Year
January 2005
Name

Mutiso Stephen Mutinda

Title

Institutional Constraints Affecting Famers' Access to Production Services in Small Scale Irrigation Scheme in Kenya:
The Case of the Yatta Canal in Machakos District.
.
Abstract

This study is about institutional constraints affecting farmers’ aceess to production services in Yatta canal, Machakos District. The production services studied are; fertilizer, pesticides, seed and extension services. The study analyses access constraints such as availability, affordability and farmers’ knowledge on these services. Data collection was carded out using semi-stnictured and unstructured qucstionnaires. The semi-structured questionnaire was administered to sixty farmers in the canal. Using the unstructured questionnaire, thirteen key informants were interviewed. Data from the field was coded into a codebook for qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Quantitative data analysis involved computation of frequency distributions and crosstabulations, among other statistical techniques. Qualitative analysis, on the other hand, involved content analysis of the emerging relations, themes and patterns of access to production services in relation to the hypothesized variables. The study found out that irrigation agriculture is essential in Yatta division due to poor climatic conditions. Further, it was established that productivity of the scheme might be low or even fall with time unless farmers have adequate access to production services such as fertilizers, pesticides, seed and extension services. Study findings further revealed that a majority of farmers in the scheme use fertilizers, pesticides and certified seed. However, the tevel of access to these inputs remains low forcing the farmers to resort to various coping strategies. In particular, farmers buy and utilize low quantities of fertilizers, pesticides and certified seed. They also use farmer-saved seed (non-certified) when they encounter constraints in accessing certified seed. Further only a few farmers in the canal have access to extension services.

The study found out that institutional environment and arrangements for service provision in the canal has led to problems of limited access to these services. Some of he institutional constraints identified in the study inc1ude high and unstable prices of from inputs, problems associated with the nature of input availability, poor markets nnd marketing arrangements, limited scheme-level organization, inadequate extension Mel-Vices, poor relationship between the farmers and suppliers of production services, poor quality monitoring mechanisms for the inputs, the nature of input supply chains, underdeveloped rural growth points and the impact of market liberalization, among others.
The study recommends that nstitutional adjustuents should be put i n place in the Scheme to facilitate effective access to production services. In particular, institutional changes are required in order to reduce the transaction costs associated with access to these services. Therefore, the instifttional environment and arrangements should not oniy ensure the availability of these services, but also the ability of the farmer to essentially buy/access them in a satisfatoty manner. Scheme-level farmers inrganisations should be established to enable the farmers to buy production services ei groups and market their produce effectively. The goveniment should facilitate acess to production services through constant surveillance of the quality of inputs oIil to the farmers as well as developing rural infrastructure such as roads
.



Year
SEPTEMBER 2010
Name

MARY MBODZA MWAKAI
Title

MORTGAGING CHILDREN’S LIVES THROUGH WORK:
A CASE STUDY OF CHILD ENTERTAINERS IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY AT THE KENYAN NORTH COAST.
.
Abstract

Kenya has a long Coast line with beautiful sandy beaches that are very attractive mostly to tourists. In a bid to attract and retain more people who come, different types of entertainment activities mainly directed to tourists are carried out. This has seen children increasingly involved in acrobatics, singing, dancing and other activities like massaging and sexual deeds considered as part of entertainment to the tourists.
The study examines the factors that drive children to become entertainers, their role as child entertainers in the tourism industry and how this practice affects formal schooling of these children in the Kenyan North coast. This was based on frequent observations that child labour is rampant in the tourism industry along the Kenyan coast. The general objective of the study was to unearth the underlying factors of child entertainment and its impact on formal education. It therefore highlights various factors that lead to child entertainment such as poverty, parental negligence, peer pressure and belief of talent among child entertainers and the community at large. Theories of child labour such as human capital accumulation and human capabilities theory were explored to establish the relationship between the above factors and child entertainment in the tourism industry.
The research design was corellational so as to enable the researcher to study the interrelations between variables, describe characteristics of the child entertainers and make specific conclusions based on the themes and sub themes of the study. The study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data was collected through face to face interviews and focus group discussions at Mtwapa, one of the towns in Kilifi district along the Kenyan North coast which is a well known hub of tourism activities. The target population was child entertainers from which a sample of forty (40) which constituted 50% of the target population was drawn. Questionnaires and focus group discussion guides were employed to collect data. The questions asked in these data collection tools were based on the objectives of the study and therefore gave a guideline on the various themes and sub-themes such as child entertainers’ bio-data ,household characteristics, working conditions and causes and effects of child entertainment. The data collected was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.
The findings of the study established that poverty is a major factor that makes children become entertainers though it may not be the exclusive factor causing the involvement of children in entertainment activities in the tourism industry. In addition the study found out that child entertainment affects formal schooling by encouraging absenteeism and poor grades as it takes a lot of time which children would otherwise use for studying. The child entertainers work under poor conditions which include sexual harassment, low pay, and other environmental hazards which affect the children negatively in their present and future lives.

Based on the study findings the following recommendations have been made: Awareness campaigns should be undertaken to sensitize the community about the dangers of child entertainment/labour. For effectiveness and sustainability of these campaigns, all stakeholders i.e. the police, government officials, parents, children, NGO officials and religious leaders should fully participate.
The study further suggests that relevant stakeholders should make school interesting and attractive to children so as to retain children in school as most of them are primary school going children. This can be done by starting projects which benefit even children from urban poor families such as school feeding programmes as Mtwapa schools currently are not in the school feeding programme agenda. This study is of great importance to policy makers and human rights advocates as it will enable them to decide on possible interventions which can be taken to support child entertainers or reduce child entertainment in the tourism industry at the Kenyan North Coast.



Year
October 2010
Name

KING’OINA, STEPHEN SIRO
Title

ANALYSIS OF ROUTE MANAGEMENT IN THE MATATU INDUSTRY IN NAIROBI
A CASE STUDY OF CARTELS
.
Abstract

Transport plays an important role in integrating the various sectors in the Kenyan economy just like elsewhere in the world. It is estimated that the matatu industry in Kenya controls over 80 per cent of passenger transportation. In spite of this important role, this study shows that the industry is poorly coordinated, with functions relevant for efficient operations located across different government departments and agencies. Further, the industry is characterized by a number of stakeholders with conflicting interests.
The growth of the industry has not been effectively facilitated by the government. The government under the Ministry of Transport (MoT) is charged with responsibility of provision of services, policy guidelines, coordination and law enforcement relevant for effective management of the operations of transport service. However, due to disjointed nature of the government institutions and departments the industry is marred with illegal groups who extort money from the public to make a living.
This study was conducted with an aim of shedding light on institutions, which manage matatu routes in Nairobi, with a major focus on cartels. The study provides information on cartels who are thought to be involved in unlawful activities creating fear in the general public, and operating in the midst of government institutions and departments. Areas investigated include: the origin, existence and involvement of cartels in the management of matatu industry.
Dandora was chosen as a study site, in particular route number 36. Located in the eastern part of Nairobi, Dandora estate is one of the many suburbs, which is highly populated. Majority of the residents are low income earners, very insecure with high crime and unemployment rates. These attributes partly contribute to the area housing some of the most dangerous illegal groups, including cartels who manage the matatu routes
The study findings indicate that the cartels came into the industry as a result of the unregulated vacuum created by the absence of government institutions and departments at the route level. The study reveals that the cartels are assigning routes to matatu owners even after matatu owners have been assigned routes by the Transport Licensing Board (TLB), regulating vehicle entry into a route by charging illegal fees, preventing those who have not paid the fees from operating, preventing others from invading the route; controlling fares charged to passengers; and collecting daily fees from matatu operators claiming that it is protection fees. It was evident that colossal sums of money are collected from the operators, while the services purported to be offered are not rendered.
The study makes a number of recommendations as a step towards finding a lasting solution to cartels, including the need for government to facilitate formation of a unified body to run the transport sector. Other recommendations include: harmonising roles and responsibilities of various government departments and agencies in order to effectively manage and regulate the industry and facilitating the civil associations to work together; facilitating the formation of various groups operating within the matatu industry into Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS) with organized rules and regulations and laid down penalties for offenders. This has potential of reducing and eventually eliminating cartels in the management of matatu routes.



Year
October 2010
Name

OMMEH MARILYN SARA
Title

PARATRANSIT FARES AND COMMUTERS’ MODAL CHOICE:
A STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN SAMEER PARK EPZ, NAIROBI.
.
Abstract

Paratransit operations play a key role in serving the mobility needs of both the low income and the middle income populace in developing countries. The extent to which this means of public transport is affordable is key in determining whether their basic mobility needs are met. Matatu means of transport which is a form of paratransit in Kenya has grown over the years since independence. Despite the increased numbers of matatu operations in Kenya, a significant proportion of Kenyans in the urban setting continue to use non motorised means of transport such as walking or bicycles to get to their work destinations. This study interrogates the effects of paratransit fares on work trip modal choices of industrial workers. It proposes that matatu fares affect commuters’ modal choice, implying that industrial workers may opt to use other modes of transport to get to work if they cannot afford to pay for matatu use. The study objectives were met by carrying out a field survey and case study interviews on the modal choices of industrial workers in Sameer Park EPZ. Key informant interviews were also carried out to collect information on fares.
The study found that industrial workers who could not afford to use matatus for their work trips relied solely on NMT or used matatus interchangeably with NMT. The study also found that apart from fares, there were also other factors that influenced modal choice. A key finding was that a significant proportion of industrial workers resided at informal settlement areas which were close to Sameer Industrial Park. The study concludes that paratransit fares influence industrial workers modal choices. The study recommends the establishment of a fare regulatory board which would set and control fares of all public transport means.



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